Document
Table of Contents

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
__________________
FORM 10-Q
__________________
  (Mark One)

 x QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended June 30, 2017
OR
o TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from _____________ to _____________
 
Commission File Number: 001-36384
__________________
THE RUBICON PROJECT, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 __________________
Delaware
 
20-8881738
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
 
 
 
12181 Bluff Creek Drive, 4th Floor
Los Angeles, CA 90094
(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)
 
 
 
Registrant's telephone number, including area code:
 
(310) 207-0272
 
 __________________
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.   Yes x    No ¨ 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).   Yes x    No ¨  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer" and "smaller reporting company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer  ¨
 
Accelerated filer x
 
 
 
Non-accelerated filer ¨ 
(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
 
Smaller reporting company ¨
 
 
 
Emerging growth company x
 
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).   o Yes x  No
Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the registrant's classes of common stock, as of the latest practicable date.
Class
 
Outstanding as of July 25, 2017
Common Stock, $0.00001 par value
 
49,821,932


Table of Contents

THE RUBICON PROJECT, INC.
QUARTERLY REPORT ON FORM 10-Q
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
Page No.
Part I.
Item 1.
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Part II.
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 2.
Item 6.
 

2

Table of Contents

PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Item 1. Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
THE RUBICON PROJECT, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(In thousands, except per share amounts)
(unaudited)
 
June 30, 2017
 
December 31, 2016
ASSETS
 
 
 
Current assets:
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
165,241

 
$
149,423

Marketable securities
27,365

 
40,550

Accounts receivable, net
138,963

 
192,064

Prepaid expenses and other current assets
10,757

 
9,540

TOTAL CURRENT ASSETS
342,326

 
391,577

Property and equipment, net
34,107

 
36,246

Internal use software development costs, net
13,493

 
16,522

Other assets, non-current
1,892

 
2,921

Intangible assets, net
4,440

 
6,804

Goodwill
65,705

 
65,705

TOTAL ASSETS
$
461,963

 
$
519,775

LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY
 
 
 
Current liabilities:
 
 
 
Accounts payable and accrued expenses
$
174,031

 
$
214,903

Other current liabilities
3,193

 
3,534

TOTAL CURRENT LIABILITIES
177,224

 
218,437

Deferred tax liability, net
42

 
42

Other liabilities, non-current
1,736

 
1,783

TOTAL LIABILITIES
179,002

 
220,262

Commitments and contingencies (Note 9)


 


STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY
 
 
 
Preferred stock, $0.00001 par value, 10,000 shares authorized at June 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016; 0 shares issued and outstanding at June 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016, respectively

 

Common stock, $0.00001 par value; 500,000 shares authorized at June 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016; 49,744 and 49,378 shares issued and outstanding at June 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016, respectively

 

Additional paid-in capital
409,360

 
398,787

Accumulated other comprehensive loss
(3)

 
(273)

Accumulated deficit
(126,396)

 
(99,001)

TOTAL STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY
282,961

 
299,513

TOTAL LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY
$
461,963

 
$
519,775


The accompanying notes to unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements are an integral part of these statements.


3

Table of Contents

THE RUBICON PROJECT, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(In thousands, except per share amounts)
(unaudited)
 
Three Months Ended
 
Six Months Ended
 
June 30, 2017
 
June 30, 2016
 
June 30, 2017
 
June 30, 2016
Revenue
$
42,922

 
$
70,511

 
$
88,937

 
$
139,743

Expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of revenue
13,698

 
17,540

 
28,386

 
34,323

Sales and marketing
12,529

 
21,966

 
27,157

 
43,244

Technology and development
12,044

 
13,294

 
24,797

 
25,737

General and administrative
14,355

 
16,390

 
29,435

 
36,995

Restructuring and other exit costs
1,621

 

 
5,959

 

Total expenses
54,247

 
69,190

 
115,734

 
140,299

Income (loss) from operations
(11,325
)
 
1,321

 
(26,797
)
 
(556
)
Other (income) expense:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Interest income, net
(228
)
 
(131
)
 
(395
)
 
(225
)
Other income
(167
)
 
(197
)
 
(379
)
 
(197
)
Foreign exchange (gain) loss, net
479

 
(578
)
 
851

 
(317
)
Total other (income) expense, net
84

 
(906
)
 
77

 
(739
)
Income (loss) before income taxes
(11,409
)
 
2,227

 
(26,874
)
 
183

Provision for income taxes
146

 
4,904

 
521

 
576

Net loss
(11,555
)
 
(2,677
)
 
(27,395
)
 
(393
)
Net loss per share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic and Diluted
$
(0.24
)
 
$
(0.06
)
 
$
(0.56
)
 
$
(0.01
)
Weighted-average shares used to compute net loss per share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic and Diluted
48,783

 
46,341

 
48,559

 
45,502


The accompanying notes to unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements are an integral part of these statements.


 

4

Table of Contents

THE RUBICON PROJECT, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)
(In thousands)
(unaudited)
 
Three Months Ended
 
Six Months Ended
 
June 30, 2017
 
June 30, 2016
 
June 30, 2017

June 30, 2016
Net loss
$
(11,555
)
 
$
(2,677
)
 
$
(27,395
)
 
$
(393
)
Other comprehensive income (loss):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Unrealized gain (loss) on investments, net of tax of $0 for the six months ended June 30, 2017 and 2016
4

 
20

 

 
84

Foreign currency translation adjustments
173

 
(138
)
 
270

 
(111
)
Other comprehensive income (loss)
177

 
(118
)
 
270

 
(27
)
Comprehensive loss
$
(11,378
)
 
$
(2,795
)
 
$
(27,125
)
 
$
(420
)

The accompanying notes to unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements are an integral part of these statements.




5

Table of Contents

 

THE RUBICON PROJECT, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY (DEFICIT)
(in thousands)
(unaudited)
 
Common Stock 
 
Additional
Paid-In
Capital
 
Accumulated  Other
Comprehensive
Income (Loss)
 
Accumulated
Deficit
 
Total
Stockholders’
Equity (Deficit)
 
Shares

 
Amount

 
Balance at December 31, 2016
49,378

 

 
398,787

 
(273
)
 
(99,001
)
 
299,513

Exercise of common stock options
99

 

 
384

 

 

 
384

Restricted stock awards, net
(166
)
 

 

 

 

 

Shares withheld related to net share settlement
(361
)
 

 
(2,048
)
 

 

 
(2,048
)
Issuance of common stock related to RSU vesting
705

 

 

 

 

 

Issuance of common stock related to Employee Stock Purchase Plan
89

 

 
444

 

 

 
444

Stock-based compensation

 

 
11,793

 

 

 
11,793

Other comprehensive income

 

 

 
270

 

 
270

Net loss

 

 

 

 
(27,395
)
 
(27,395
)
Balance at June 30, 2017
49,744

 
$

 
$
409,360

 
$
(3
)
 
$
(126,396
)
 
$
282,961


The accompanying notes to unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements are an integral part of these statements.




6

Table of Contents


THE RUBICON PROJECT, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(In thousands)
(unaudited)
 
Six Months Ended
 
June 30, 2017
 
June 30, 2016
OPERATING ACTIVITIES:
 
 
 
Net loss
$
(27,395
)
 
$
(393
)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash provided by (used in) operating activities:
 
 
 
Depreciation and amortization
18,976

 
18,408

Stock-based compensation
11,542

 
15,517

Loss on disposal of property and equipment
271

 
5

Provision for doubtful accounts
566

 
594

Unrealized foreign currency gains, net
1,130

 
(1,179
)
Deferred income taxes
274

 
557

Changes in operating assets and liabilities, net of effect of business acquisitions:
 
 
 
Accounts receivable
52,917

 
59,044

Prepaid expenses and other assets
(469
)
 
(113
)
Accounts payable and accrued expenses
(44,561
)
 
(59,252
)
Other liabilities
(446
)
 
62

Net cash provided by operating activities
12,805

 
33,250

INVESTING ACTIVITIES:
 
 
 
Purchases of property and equipment
(4,839
)
 
(3,933
)
Capitalized internal use software development costs
(4,327
)
 
(5,029
)
Investments in available-for-sale securities
(31,789
)
 
(15,687
)
Maturities of available-for-sale securities
45,050

 
12,800

Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities
4,095

 
(11,849
)
FINANCING ACTIVITIES:
 
 
 
Proceeds from exercise of stock options
384

 
12,859

Proceeds from issuance of common stock under employee stock purchase plan
444

 
1,137

Taxes paid related to net share settlement
(2,048
)
 
(4,886
)
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities
(1,220
)
 
9,110

EFFECT OF EXCHANGE RATE CHANGES ON CASH, CASH EQUIVALENTS AND RESTRICTED CASH
140

 
(78
)
CHANGE IN CASH, CASH EQUIVALENTS AND RESTRICTED CASH
15,820

 
30,433

CASH, CASH EQUIVALENTS AND RESTRICTED CASH Beginning of period
149,498

 
116,832

CASH, CASH EQUIVALENTS AND RESTRICTED CASH End of period
$
165,318

 
$
147,265

SUPPLEMENTAL DISCLOSURES OF OTHER CASH FLOW INFORMATION:
 
 
 
Capitalized assets financed by accounts payable and accrued expenses
$
3,944

 
$
1,698

Capitalized stock-based compensation
$
251

 
$
537


The accompanying notes to unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements are an integral part of these statements.

7

Table of Contents

THE RUBICON PROJECT, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(unaudited)
Note 1—Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Company Overview
The Rubicon Project, Inc., or Rubicon Project or the Company, was formed on April 20, 2007 in Delaware and began operations in April 2007. The Company is headquartered in Los Angeles, California.
The Company pioneered advertising automation technology and is one of the world’s largest advertising exchanges. The Company helps websites and applications thrive by giving them tools and expertise to sell ads easily and safely. In addition, the world’s leading agencies and brands rely on the Company's technology to execute billions of advertising transactions each month.
The Company delivers value to buyers and sellers of digital advertising through the Company’s proprietary advertising automation solution, which provides critical functionality to both buyers and sellers. The advertising automation solution consists of applications for sellers, including providers of websites, mobile applications and other digital media properties, and their representatives, to sell their advertising inventory; applications for buyers, including advertisers, agencies, agency trading desks, demand side platforms, and ad networks, to buy advertising inventory; and a marketplace over which such transactions are executed. This solution incorporates proprietary machine-learning algorithms, sophisticated data processing, high-volume storage, detailed analytics capabilities, and a distributed infrastructure. Together, these features form the basis for the Company’s automated advertising solution that brings buyers and sellers together and facilitates intelligent decision-making and automated transaction execution for the advertising inventory managed on the Company's platform.
Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with United States Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, or GAAP, for interim financial information and the instructions to Form 10-Q and Article 10 of Regulation S-X. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and footnotes required by GAAP for complete financial statements. In the opinion of management, all adjustments (consisting of normal recurring adjustments) considered necessary for a fair statement of the results for the interim period presented have been included. Operating results for the six months ended June 30, 2017 are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for any future interim period, the year ending December 31, 2017, or for any future year.
The condensed consolidated balance sheet at December 31, 2016 has been derived from the audited financial statements at that date, but does not include all of the disclosures required by GAAP. The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the Company's audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto for the year ended December 31, 2016 included in its 2016 Annual Report on Form 10-K.
There have been no significant changes in the Company's accounting policies from those disclosed in its audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto for the year ended December 31, 2016 included in its Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Reclassifications
 
Certain prior period amounts have been reclassified to conform to the current period presentation. Specifically, this includes amounts reclassified to conform to the current year presentation in the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows.
Revenue Recognition
The Company generates revenue from buyers and sellers who use its solution for the purchase and sale of advertising inventory. The Company's solution enables buyers and sellers to purchase and sell advertising inventory by matching buyers and sellers, and by establishing rules and parameters for auctions of advertising inventory. Buyers use the Company's solution to reach their intended audiences by buying advertising inventory that the Company makes available from sellers through its solution. Sellers use the Company's solution to monetize their inventory. The Company recognizes revenue upon fulfillment of its contractual obligations in connection with a completed transaction, subject to satisfying all other revenue recognition criteria, including (i) persuasive evidence of an arrangement existing, (ii) delivery having occurred or services having been rendered, (iii) the fees being fixed or determinable, and (iv) collectability being reasonably assured. The Company generally bills and collects the full purchase price of impressions from buyers, together with other fees, if applicable. The Company reports revenue on a net basis for arrangements in which it has determined that it does not act as the principal in the purchase and sale of advertising inventory because pricing is determined through the Company's auction process or directly between a buyer and a seller and the Company is not the primary obligor. In some cases, the Company generates revenue directly from sellers who maintain the primary relationship with buyers and utilize the Company's solution to transact and increase the monetization of their activities. The Company reports

8

Table of Contents

revenue on a net basis for these activities. The Company reported revenue on a gross basis for arrangements in which it determined that the Company acted as the principal in the purchase and sale of advertising inventory because the Company had direct contractual relationships with and managed advertising campaigns on behalf of the buyer by acting as the primary obligor in the purchase of advertising inventory, the Company exercised discretion in establishing prices, the Company had credit risk, and the Company independently selected and purchased inventory from the seller. The revenue the Company reported on a gross basis was associated with its intent marketing solution, which the Company ceased providing in the first quarter of 2017. For quarters ending after March 31, 2017, all the Company’s revenue is reported on a net basis.
The Company's accounts receivable are recorded at the amount of gross billings to buyers, net of allowances, for the amounts the Company is responsible to collect, and the Company's accounts payable related to amounts due to sellers are recorded at the net amount payable to sellers. Accordingly, both accounts receivable and accounts payable appear large in relation to revenue reported on a net basis. 
Goodwill
Goodwill represents the excess of the aggregate fair value of the consideration transferred in a business combination over the fair value of the assets acquired, net of liabilities assumed. Goodwill is not amortized, but is subject to an annual impairment test. The Company tests for impairment of goodwill annually during the fourth quarter or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that goodwill may be impaired. For purposes of goodwill impairment testing, the Company operates as a single operating segment and has identified a single reporting unit. Events or changes in circumstances which could trigger an impairment review include a significant adverse change in legal factors or in the business climate, an adverse action or assessment by a regulator, unanticipated competition, a loss of key personnel, significant changes in the manner of the Company’s use of the acquired assets or the strategy for the Company’s overall business, significant negative industry or economic trends, or significant underperformance relative to expected historical or projected future results of operations.
In January 2017, the FASB issued new guidance intended to simplify the test for goodwill impairment, which the Company adopted during the three month period ended March 31, 2017. Testing goodwill for impairment involves a quantitative analysis whereby the estimated fair value of the reporting unit is compared with its respective carrying amount, including goodwill. However, prior to performing this quantitative goodwill impairment test, the Company has the option to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether or not it is necessary to perform the quantitative goodwill impairment test. If the Company chooses the qualitative option, the Company is not required to perform the quantitative goodwill impairment test unless it has determined, based on the qualitative assessment, that it is more likely than not that the fair value of the reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. If the quantitative impairment test is required or chosen, the impairment test involves comparing the estimated fair value of the reporting unit with its respective carrying amount, including goodwill. If the estimated fair value of the reporting unit exceeds its carrying amount, including goodwill, goodwill is considered not to be impaired and no additional steps are necessary.
In March 2017, the Company experienced a drop in the trading price of its common stock. As a result, the Company's public market capitalization, calculated by multiplying the share price by outstanding shares, is lower than the carrying value of its net assets. The Company considered this an indicator triggering the need to assess the carrying value of goodwill for potential impairment at March 31, 2017 and June 30, 2017. As a result, the Company performed a quantitative goodwill impairment assessment. The Company considered multiple factors including, among others, its current business condition, product and business plans, market perceptions, valuation considerations, and the timing of these factors. As a result, the Company determined that no impairment of goodwill was indicated at both March 31, 2017 and June 30, 2017.
Given the lack of significant headroom in our goodwill impairment assessment, we may be required to perform another interim goodwill impairment assessment in the third quarter of 2017 prior to our annual test. Based on the outcome of these future impairment assessments, we may be required to take a non-cash impairment charge if there is a future negative change in the factors considered above.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported and disclosed financial statements and accompanying footnotes. Actual results could differ materially from these estimates.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Under the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act, or the JOBS Act, the Company meets the definition of an emerging growth company. The Company has irrevocably elected to opt out of the extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards pursuant to Section 107(b) of the JOBS Act.
In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board, or FASB, issued new accounting guidance that amends the guidance for revenue recognition to replace numerous industry-specific requirements and converges areas under the "Revenue from Contracts with Customers" topic with those of the International Financial Reporting Standards. The guidance implements a five-step

9

Table of Contents

process for customer contract revenue recognition that focuses on transfer of control, as opposed to transfer of risk and rewards. The amendment also requires enhanced disclosures regarding the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenues and cash flows from contracts with customers. Other major provisions include the capitalization and amortization of certain contract costs, ensuring the time value of money is considered in the transaction price, and allowing estimates of variable consideration to be recognized before contingencies are resolved in certain circumstances. Entities can transition to the standard either retrospectively or as a cumulative-effect adjustment as of the date of adoption. The guidance is effective for reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017, with early adoption permitted only as of annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2016. Since its issuance, the FASB has amended several aspects of the new guidance including provisions that clarify the implementation guidance on principal versus agent considerations in the new revenue recognition standard. The amendments clarify how an entity should identify the unit of accounting (i.e. the specified good or service) for the principal versus agent evaluation and how it should apply the control principle to certain types of arrangements. The Company has not yet selected a transition method, but is currently evaluating the new guidance with respect to its revenue arrangements and assessing the impact this guidance will have on the Company's condensed consolidated financial statements.
In February 2016, the FASB issued new accounting guidance that requires an entity to recognize right-of-use assets and lease liabilities on its balance sheet and disclose key information about leasing arrangements. This guidance offers specific accounting guidance for a lessee, a lessor, and sale and leaseback transactions. Lessees and lessors are required to disclose qualitative and quantitative information about leasing arrangements to enable a user of the financial statements to assess the amount, timing and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases. Leases will be classified as either finance or operating, with classification affecting the pattern of expense recognition in the income statement. This guidance is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within that reporting period, and requires a modified retrospective adoption, with early adoption permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the effect this guidance will have on its condensed consolidated financial statements and related disclosures, and anticipates the guidance to result in increases in its assets and liabilities as most of its operating lease commitments will be subject to the new standard and recognized as right-of-use assets and lease liabilities.
In October 2016, the FASB issued new guidance intended to improve the accounting for the income tax consequences of intra-entity transfers of assets other than inventory. Under the new guidance, entities should recognize the income tax consequences of such transfers when the transfers occur. The new guidance will be effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017, and early adoption is permitted. The guidance requires application using a modified retrospective transition method. The Company is currently assessing the impact this guidance will have on its condensed consolidated financial statements.
In November 2016, the FASB issued new guidance that requires a Company to explain the change during the period in the total of cash, cash equivalents, and amounts generally described as restricted cash or restricted cash equivalents in the statement of cash flow. Therefore, amounts generally described as restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents should be included with cash and cash equivalents when reconciling the beginning-of-period and end-of-period total amounts shown on the statement of cash flows. The new guidance will be effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017, and early adoption is permitted, including early adoption in an interim period. If an entity early adopts the amendments in an interim period,
any adjustments should be reflected as of the beginning of the fiscal year that includes that interim period. The guidance requires application using a retrospective transition method to each period presented. The Company has early adopted this guidance during the six months ended June 30, 2017 and has reflected the changes in the current and prior period statement of cash flow.
In January 2017, the FASB issued amended guidance for business combinations. The new pronouncement changes the definition of a business with the objective of adding guidance to assist companies with evaluating whether transactions should be accounted for as acquisitions (or disposals) of assets or businesses. The guidance is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2017, and will be applied prospectively to any transactions occurring within the period of adoption. Early adoption is permitted, including for interim or annual periods in which the financial statements have not been issued or made available for issuance. Subsequent to adoption, the Company will apply this guidance to acquisitions or disposals occurring in the period of adoption and thereafter. The Company is currently assessing the impact this guidance will have on its condensed consolidated financial statements.
In May 2017, the FASB issued new guidance for modification accounting of stock based compensation expense. The new pronouncement provides guidance about which changes to the terms and conditions of a share-based payment award require an entity to apply modification accounting. The guidance notes that an entity should account for the effects of a modification unless the fair value of the modified award is the same as the fair value of the original award immediately before the original award was modified and it did not change any of the inputs to the valuation technique used to value the award, the vesting conditions did not change, and the classification of the award as either equity or liability did not change. The guidance is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2017, and will be applied prospectively to any transactions occurring within the period of adoption. Early adoption is permitted, including for interim or annual periods in which the financial statements have not been issued or made available for issuance. The Company is currently assessing the impact this guidance will have on its condensed consolidated financial statements.
    

10

Table of Contents

Note 2—Net Income (Loss) Per Share
The Company had a loss from continuing operations for the three and six months ended June 30, 2017 and 2016, and therefore the number of diluted shares was equal to the number of basic shares for the period.

The following table presents the basic and diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders:  
 
Three Months Ended
 
Six Months Ended
 
June 30, 2017
 
June 30, 2016
 
June 30, 2017
 
June 30, 2016
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(In thousands, except per share data)
Basic and Diluted EPS:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net loss attributable to common stockholders
$
(11,555
)
 
$
(2,677
)
 
$
(27,395
)
 
$
(393
)
Weighted-average common shares outstanding
49,666

 
48,740

 
49,557

 
47,939

Weighted-average unvested restricted shares
(883
)
 
(1,763
)
 
(998
)
 
(1,732
)
Weighted-average escrow shares

 
(636
)
 

 
(705
)
Weighted-average common shares outstanding used to compute net loss per share
48,783

 
46,341

 
48,559

 
45,502

Basic and diluted net loss per share
$
(0.24
)
 
$
(0.06
)
 
$
(0.56
)
 
$
(0.01
)
The following weighted-average shares have been excluded from the calculation of diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders for each period presented because they are anti-dilutive:
 
Three Months Ended
 
Six Months Ended
 
June 30, 2017
 
June 30, 2016
 
June 30, 2017
 
June 30, 2016
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(in thousands)
Options to purchase common stock
88

 
1,317

 
137

 
1,519

Unvested restricted stock awards
367

 
756

 
295

 
685

Unvested restricted stock units
585

 
930

 
623

 
913

ESPP
44

 
26

 
52

 
22

Shares held in escrow

 
635

 

 
699

Total shares excluded from net loss per share
1,084

 
3,664


1,107

 
3,838


11

Table of Contents

Note 3—Fair Value Measurements
Fair value represents the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. Valuation techniques used to measure fair value must maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs. Observable inputs are based on market data obtained from independent sources. The fair value hierarchy is based on the following three levels of inputs, of which the first two are considered observable and the last one is considered unobservable:
Level 1 – Quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the Company has the ability to access at the measurement date.
Level 2 – Inputs other than quoted prices included within Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly.
Level 3 – Unobservable inputs.
The table below sets forth a summary of financial instruments that are measured at fair value on a recurring basis at June 30, 2017:
 
Total
 
Fair Value Measurements at Reporting Date Using  
 
 
Quoted Prices in
Active Markets for
Identical Assets
(Level 1)
 
Significant Other
Observable Inputs
(Level 2)
 
Significant
Unobservable Inputs 
(Level 3)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(in thousands)
Cash equivalents
$
29,159

 
$
23,662

 
$
5,497

 
$

Corporate debt securities
$
22,356

 
$

 
$
22,356

 
$

U.S. Treasury, government and agency debt securities
$
5,009

 
$
5,009

 
$

 
$

The table below sets forth a summary of financial instruments that are measured at fair value on a recurring basis at December 31, 2016:
 
Total
 
Fair Value Measurements at Reporting Date Using  
 
 
Quoted Prices in
Active Markets for
Identical Assets
(Level 1)
 
Significant Other
Observable Inputs
(Level 2)
 
Significant
Unobservable Inputs 
(Level 3)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(in thousands)
Cash equivalents
$
15,776

 
$
7,781

 
$
7,995

 
$

Corporate debt securities
$
17,314

 
$

 
$
17,314

 
$

U.S. Treasury, government and agency debt securities
$
23,236

 
$
23,236

 
$

 
$

At June 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016, cash equivalents of $29.2 million and $15.8 million, respectively, consisted of money market funds, commercial paper, treasury and agency debt securities with original maturities of three months or less. The carrying amounts of cash equivalents are classified as Level 1 or Level 2 depending on whether or not their fair values are based on quoted market prices for identical securities that are traded in an active market. The commercial paper included in cash equivalents is classified as Level 2 since its fair value is not based on quoted market prices for identical securities that are traded in an active market, but rather is derived from similar securities. Corporate debt securities included in marketable securities on the balance sheet whose fair values are not based on quoted market prices for identical securities that are traded in an active market, rather derived from similar securities, are classified as Level 2 as well. The fair values of the Company's U.S. treasury, government and agency debt securities, are based on quoted market prices and classified as Level 1.

12

Table of Contents

Note 4—Other Balance Sheet Amounts
Investments in marketable securities as of June 30, 2017 consisted of the following:
 
Amortized
Cost
 
Gross
Unrealized
Gains
 
Gross
Unrealized
Losses
 
Fair
Value
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(in thousands)
Available-for-sale — short-term:
 
U.S. Treasury, government and agency debt securities
$
5,009

 
$

 
$

 
$
5,009

Corporate debt securities
22,356

 

 

 
22,356

Total
$
27,365

 
$

 
$

 
$
27,365

Investments in marketable securities as of December 31, 2016 consisted of the following:
 
Amortized
Cost
 
Gross
Unrealized
Gains
 
Gross
Unrealized
Losses
 
Fair
Value
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(in thousands)
Available-for-sale — short-term:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
U.S. Treasury, government and agency debt securities
$
23,237

 
$
1

 
$
(2
)
 
$
23,236

Corporate debt securities
17,314

 

 

 
17,314

Total
$
40,551

 
$
1

 
$
(2
)
 
$
40,550

As of June 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016, the Company's available-for-sale securities had a weighted remaining contractual maturity of 0.2 years and 0.3 years, respectively. For the three and six months ended June 30, 2017, there were no realized gains (losses) and there were no unrealized holding gains (losses) reclassified out of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) into the condensed consolidated statements of operations for the sale of available-for-sale investments.
Accounts payable and accrued expenses included the following:
 
June 30, 2017
 
December 31, 2016
 
 
 
 
 
(in thousands)
Accounts payable—seller
$
156,812

 
$
197,261

Accounts payable—trade
8,318

 
7,930

Accrued employee-related payables
8,901

 
9,712

Total
$
174,031

 
$
214,903

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash included in the cash flow is as follows:
 
June 30, 2017
 
June 30, 2016
 
 
 
 
 
(in thousands)
Cash and cash equivalents
$
165,241

 
$
147,188

Restricted cash (included in "prepaid expenses and other current assets")
77

 
77

Total cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash
$
165,318

 
$
147,265


13

Table of Contents

Note 5—Intangible Assets
Details of the Company’s intangible assets was as follows:
 
 
June 30, 2017
 
December 31, 2016
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(in thousands)
Amortizable intangible assets:
 
 
 
 
Developed technology
 
$
12,058

 
$
13,418

Customer relationships
 
2,880

 
3,330

Non-compete agreements
 

 
4,990

Total identifiable intangible assets, gross
 
14,938

 
21,738

Accumulated amortization— intangible assets:
 
 
 
 
Developed technology
 
(7,618
)
 
(7,652
)
Customer relationships
 
(2,880
)
 
(2,837
)
Non-compete agreements
 

 
(4,445
)
Total accumulated amortization—intangible assets
 
(10,498
)
 
(14,934
)
Total identifiable intangible assets, net
 
$
4,440

 
$
6,804

Amortization of intangible assets for the three and six months ended June 30, 2017 were $0.8 million and $2.4 million, respectively. In January 2017, the Company announced that it would cease providing intent marketing services. In connection with this decision, the Company assessed the asset group related to the intent marketing services, which consisted of client relationships and developed technology related to the Chango acquisition, and determined that the asset group was impaired. Accordingly, the Company recorded a charge for the impairment of intangible assets totaling $23.5 million, which is included in the consolidated statement of operations for the year ended December 31, 2016.
The estimated remaining amortization expense associated with the Company's intangible assets was as follows as of June 30, 2017:
Fiscal Year
Amount
 
(in thousands)
Remaining 2017
938

2018
1,862

2019
1,640

Total
$
4,440

Note 6—Stock-Based Compensation
The Company’s equity incentive plans provide for the grant of equity awards, including non-statutory or incentive stock options, restricted stock, and restricted stock units, to the Company's employees, officers, directors, and consultants. The Company's board of directors administers the plans. Options outstanding vest based upon continued service at varying rates, but generally over four years from issuance with 25% vesting after one year of service and the remainder vesting monthly thereafter. Restricted stock and restricted stock units vest at varying rates, usually approximately 25% vesting after approximately one year of service and the remainder vesting semi-annually thereafter. Options, restricted stock, and restricted stock units granted under the plans accelerate under certain circumstances on a change in control, as defined in the governing plan. An aggregate of 5,356,354 shares remained available for future grants at June 30, 2017 under the plans.

14

Table of Contents

Stock Options
A summary of stock option activity for the six months ended June 30, 2017 is as follows:

Shares Under Option
 
Weighted- Average Exercise Price
 
Weighted- Average Contractual Life
 
Aggregate Intrinsic Value

(in thousands)
 
 
 
 
 
(in thousands)
Outstanding at December 31, 2016
3,861

 
$
11.16

 
 
 
 
Granted
991

 
$
5.81

 
 
 
 
Exercised
(99
)
 
$
3.87

 
 
 
 
Expired
(254
)
 
$
12.58

 
 
 
 
Forfeited
(122
)
 
$
13.26

 
 
 
 
Outstanding at June 30, 2017
4,377

 
$
9.97

 
5.52 years
 
$
366

Exercisable at June 30, 2017
2,855

 
$
10.57

 
4.01 years
 
$
366

The aggregate total intrinsic value of options exercised for the six months ended June 30, 2017 was $0.4 million. At June 30, 2017, the Company had unrecognized employee stock-based compensation expense relating to nonvested stock options of approximately $5.2 million, which is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of 2.9 years. The weighted-average grant date fair value per share of stock options granted during the six months ended June 30, 2017 was $3.08. Total fair value of options vested during the six months ended June 30, 2017 was $3.1 million.
The Company estimates the fair value of stock options that contain service and/or performance conditions using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. The weighted-average input assumptions used by the Company were as follows:
 
Three Months Ended
 
Six Months Ended
 
June 30, 2017
 
June 30, 2016
 
June 30, 2017
 
June 30, 2016
Expected term (in years)
5.7

 
5.8

 
6.0

 
5.9

Risk-free interest rate
1.87
%
 
1.39
%
 
2.10
%
 
1.43
%
Expected volatility
55
%
 
55
%
 
55
%
 
48
%
Dividend yield
%
 
%
 
%
 
%
Restricted Stock
A summary of restricted stock activity for the six months ended June 30, 2017 is as follows:
 
Number of Shares
 
Weighted-Average Grant Date Fair Value
 
(in thousands)
 
 
Nonvested shares of restricted stock outstanding at December 31, 2016
1,113

 
$
14.07

Granted

 
$

Canceled
(166
)
 
$
12.65

Vested
(251
)
 
$
15.36

Nonvested shares of restricted stock outstanding at June 30, 2017
696

 
$
13.94

The aggregate fair value of restricted stock with service conditions that vested during the six months ended June 30, 2017 was $1.4 million. At June 30, 2017, the Company had unrecognized stock-based compensation expense for restricted stock with service conditions of $3.5 million, which is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of 1.6 years.
Restricted Stock Units
A summary of restricted stock unit activity for the six months ended June 30, 2017 is as follows:

15

Table of Contents

 
Number of Shares
 
Weighted-Average Grant Date Fair Value
 
(in thousands)
 
 
Nonvested restricted stock units outstanding at December 31, 2016
2,903

 
$
13.63

Granted
2,616

 
$
5.98

Canceled
(635
)
 
$
11.88

Vested
(696
)
 
$
14.08

Nonvested restricted stock units outstanding at June 30, 2017
4,188

 
$
9.00

The weighted-average grant date fair value per share of restricted stock units granted during the six months ended June 30, 2017 was $5.98. The aggregate fair value of restricted stock units that vested during six months ended June 30, 2017 was $4.0 million. At June 30, 2017, the intrinsic value of nonvested restricted stock units was $21.5 million. At June 30, 2017, the Company had unrecognized stock-based compensation expense relating to nonvested restricted stock units of approximately $29.8 million, which is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of 3.1 years.
Employee Stock Purchase Plan
In November 2013, the Company adopted the Company's 2014 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, or ESPP. The ESPP is designed to enable eligible employees to periodically purchase shares of the Company's common stock at a discount through payroll deductions of up to 10% of their eligible compensation, subject to any plan limitations. At the end of each six-month offering period, employees' accumulated contributions are applied to purchase shares at a price per share equal to 85% of the lower of the fair market value of the Company's common stock on the first trading day of the offering period or on the last trading day of the offering period. Offering periods generally commence and end in May and November of each year.
As of June 30, 2017, the Company has reserved 1,569,188 shares of its common stock for issuance under the ESPP.
Stock-Based Compensation Expense
Total stock-based compensation expense recorded in the condensed consolidated statements of operations was as follows:  
 
 
Three Months Ended
 
Six Months Ended
 
 
June 30, 2017
 
June 30, 2016
 
June 30, 2017

June 30, 2016
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(in thousands)
Cost of revenue
 
$
96

 
$
108

 
$
180

 
$
170

Sales and marketing
 
974

 
2,543

 
2,409

 
4,657

Technology and development
 
981

 
1,800

 
2,056

 
3,174

General and administrative
 
2,628

 
2,675

 
5,337

 
7,516

Restructuring and other exit costs
 
624

 

 
1,560

 

Total stock-based compensation expense
 
$
5,303

 
$
7,126

 
$
11,542

 
$
15,517


16

Table of Contents

Note 7—Restructuring and Other Exit Costs
As part of management's plan to streamline operations and prioritize resources for growth initiatives, the Company implemented restructuring initiatives that included departure of seven senior leaders and the shut-down of the Company's intent marketing services. For the six months ended June 30, 2017, in connection with these initiatives, the Company recorded restructuring and other exit costs totaling $6.0 million for one-time employee termination benefits, operational shut-down costs and other related costs. 
The following table summarizes the accrued restructuring liability related to this plan, which is recorded in "Accounts payable and accrued expenses" on the consolidated balance sheet:
 
Amount
 
(in thousands)
Accrued restructuring and other exit costs at December 31, 2016
$
801

Restructuring and other exit costs (1)
5,959

Cash paid for restructuring and other exit costs
(4,165
)
Non-cash stock based compensation for restructuring and other exit costs
(1,560
)
Accrued restructuring and other exit costs at June 30, 2017
$
1,035

(1) Restructuring and other exit costs for the three and six months ended June 30, 2017 consisted of $1.5 million and $5.1 million in employee termination costs, respectively, and $0.1 million and $0.9 million in facility closing costs, respectively.
The Company expects to pay the majority of the remaining expenses by the fourth quarter of 2017.
Note 8—Income Taxes
In determining quarterly provisions for income taxes, the Company uses the annual estimated effective tax rate applied to the actual year-to-date income. The Company's annual estimated effective tax rate differs from the statutory rate primarily as a result of state taxes, foreign taxes, nondeductible stock option expenses, and changes in the Company's valuation allowance.
The Company recorded income tax expense of $0.1 million and $4.9 million for the three months ended June 30, 2017 and 2016, respectively, and income tax expense of $0.5 million and $0.6 million for the six months ended June 30, 2017 and 2016, respectively. The tax provision is primarily the result of the domestic and certain international valuation allowances and the geographical mix of income and losses.
Due to uncertainty as to the realization of benefits from the Company's domestic and certain international deferred tax assets, including net operating loss carryforwards and research and development tax credits, the Company has a full valuation allowance reserved against such assets. The Company intends to continue to maintain a full valuation allowance on the deferred tax assets until there is sufficient evidence to support the reversal of all or some portion of these allowances.
There were no material changes to the Company's unrecognized tax benefits in the six months ended June 30, 2017, and the Company does not expect to have any significant changes to unrecognized tax benefits through the end of the fiscal year. Because of the Company's history of tax losses, all years remain open to tax audit. During the first quarter of 2017, the Internal Revenue Service commenced an examination of the 2015 tax year.
Note 9—Commitments and Contingencies
Operating Leases
The Company has commitments under non-cancelable operating leases for facilities, certain equipment, and its managed data center facilities. Total rental expenses were $3.0 million and $2.8 million for the three months ended June 30, 2017 and 2016, respectively. Total rental expenses were $6.3 million and $5.4 million for the six months ended June 30, 2017 and 2016, respectively. Additionally, expenses for cloud-based services related to data centers were $1.1 million and $1.5 million for the three months ended June 30, 2017 and 2016, respectively, and $2.8 million and $2.9 million for the six months ended June 30, 2017 and 2016, respectively. As of June 30, 2017$2.9 million of letters of credit associated with office leases were outstanding, none of which have been drawn down.
Purchase Obligations
The Company’s purchase obligations were $0.9 million as of June 30, 2017.

17

Table of Contents

Guarantees and Indemnification
The Company’s agreements with sellers, buyers, and other third parties typically obligate it to provide indemnity and defense for losses resulting from claims of intellectual property infringement, damages to property or persons, business losses, or other liabilities. Generally, these indemnity and defense obligations relate to the Company’s own business operations, obligations, and acts or omissions. However, under some circumstances, the Company agrees to indemnify and defend contract counterparties against losses resulting from their own business operations, obligations, and acts or omissions, or the business operations, obligations, and acts or omissions of third parties. For example, because the Company’s business interposes the Company between buyers and sellers in various ways, buyers often require the Company to indemnify them against acts and omissions of sellers, and sellers often require the Company to indemnify them against acts and omissions of buyers. In addition, the Company’s agreements with sellers, buyers, and other third parties typically include provisions limiting the Company’s liability to the counterparty, and the counterparty’s liability to the Company. These limits sometimes do not apply to certain liabilities, including indemnity obligations. These indemnity and limitation of liability provisions generally survive termination or expiration of the agreements in which they appear. The Company has also entered into indemnification agreements with its directors, executive officers and certain other officers that will require the Company, among other things, to indemnify them against certain liabilities that may arise by reason of their status or service as directors, officers or employees. No material demands have been made upon the Company to provide indemnification under such agreements and there are no claims that the Company is aware of that could have a material effect on the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements.
Litigation
The Company and its subsidiaries may from time to time be parties to legal or regulatory proceedings, lawsuits and other claims incident to their business activities and to the Company’s status as a public company. Such matters may include, among other things, assertions of contract breach or intellectual property infringement, claims for indemnity arising in the course of the Company’s business, regulatory investigations or enforcement proceedings, and claims by persons whose employment has been terminated. Such matters are subject to many uncertainties, and outcomes are not predictable with assurance. Consequently, management is unable to ascertain the ultimate aggregate amount of monetary liability, amounts which may be covered by insurance or recoverable from third parties, or the financial impact with respect to such matters as of June 30, 2017. However, based on management’s knowledge as of June 30, 2017, management believes that the final resolution of these matters known at such date, individually and in the aggregate, will not have a material adverse effect upon the Company’s condensed consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
On March 31, 2017, Guardian News & Media Limited (Guardian) issued proceedings (the Complaint) against the Company in the Chancery Division of the High Court of Justice in England & Wales. The Complaint alleges that the Company underpaid Guardian for inventory sold by Guardian through the Company's platform as a result of the fact that the Company charged fees to buyers of that inventory. Guardian claims the Company was precluded from charging buyer fees as a result of the contractual arrangements with Guardian and English agency law principles, as well as representations the Company allegedly made to Guardian. The Complaint claims damages including loss of revenue, interest, and costs, without specifying the amount of damages sought. The Company disputes Guardian’s claims and is defending them vigorously, but the Complaint involves disputed facts and complex legal questions, and its outcome is therefore uncertain. Even if Guardian were to prevail in this action, the Company does not believe payment of the damages that may be recoverable by Guardian would have a material adverse effect upon the Company's condensed consolidated financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.
Employment Contracts
The Company has entered into severance agreements with certain employees and officers. The Company may be required to pay severance and accelerate the vesting of certain equity awards in the event of involuntary terminations.
Note 10—Subsequent Events
On July 11, 2017, the Company entered into an Agreement and Plan of Merger with nToggle, Inc. (“nToggle”), Caviar Acquisition Corp., a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company, Shareholder Representative Services LLC, solely in its capacity as the initial Holder Representative thereunder, and certain persons delivering joinder agreements therewith. On July 14, 2017, the parties consummated the transaction contemplated by the merger agreement and nToggle became a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company. Immediately following the merger transaction, nToggle was merged into the Company and ceased to exist as a separate entity. The technology acquired from nToggle should make it easier and more cost effective for buyers to find the inventory they seek among the billions of bid requests they receive.
In connection with the acquisition, at the closing, the Company paid cash consideration of $38.5 million to the stockholders, warrantholders, and holders of vested in-the-money options of nToggle, of which, $3.4 million was deposited into an escrow account to cover a post-closing working capital adjustment and to secure indemnification obligations of such holders. In addition, the Company assumed all outstanding unvested in-the-money options and certain shares of restricted stock held by

18

Table of Contents

continuing employees, and issued an aggregate of 174,117 restricted stock units to the continuing employees under the Company's 2014 Inducement Grant Equity Incentive Plan.
The initial accounting for the acquisition is expected to be completed by Q3 2017.
Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and related statements by the Company contain forward-looking statements, including statements based upon or relating to our expectations, assumptions, estimates, and projections. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as "may," "might," "will," "objective," "intend," "should," "could," "can," "would," "expect," "believe," "design," "anticipate," "estimate," "predict," "potential," "plan" or the negative of these terms, and similar expressions. Forward-looking statements may include, but are not limited to, statements concerning our anticipated financial performance, including, without limitation, revenue, advertising spend, profitability, net income (loss), Adjusted EBITDA, earnings per share, and cash flow; strategic objectives, including focus on header bidding, mobile, video, Orders, and automated guaranteed opportunities; investments in our business; development of our technology; introduction of new offerings; the impact of our acquisition of nToggle and its traffic shaping technology on our business; scope and duration of client relationships; the fees we may charge in the future; business mix; sales growth; client utilization of our offerings; our competitive differentiation; our leadership position in the industry; market conditions, trends, and opportunities; user reach; certain statements regarding future operational performance measures including take rate, paid impressions, and average CPM; and factors that could affect these and other aspects of our business. These statements are not guarantees of future performance; they reflect our current views with respect to future events and are based on assumptions and estimates and subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from expectations or results projected or implied by forward-looking statements. These risks include, but are not limited to:
our ability to grow and to manage our growth effectively;
our ability to develop innovative new technologies and remain a market leader;
our ability to attract and retain buyers and sellers and increase our business with them;
our vulnerability to loss of, or reduction in spending by, buyers;
our ability to maintain and grow a supply of advertising inventory from sellers;
the effect on the advertising market and our business from difficult economic conditions;
the freedom of buyers and sellers to direct their spending and inventory to competing sources of inventory and demand;
our ability to use our solution to purchase and sell higher value advertising and to expand the use of our solution by buyers and sellers utilizing evolving digital media platforms;
our ability to introduce new offerings and bring them to market in a timely manner in response to client demands and industry trends, including shifts in digital advertising growth from display to mobile channels;
the increased prevalence of header bidding and its effect on our competitive position;
our header bidding solution not resulting in revenue growth and causing infrastructure strain and added cost;
uncertainty of our estimates and expectations associated with new offerings, including header bidding, private marketplace, mobile, video, Orders, automated guaranteed and guaranteed audience solutions, and traffic shaping;
declining fees and take rate, including as a result of implementation of alternative pricing models, and the need to grow through advertising spend and fill rate increases rather than pricing increases;
our limited operating history and history of losses;
our ability to continue to expand into new geographic markets;
our ability to adapt effectively to shifts in digital advertising to mobile and video channels and formats;
increased prevalence of ad blocking technologies;
the slowing growth rate of online digital display advertising;
the growing percentage of online and mobile advertising spending captured by owned and operated sites (such as Facebook and Google);
the effects of increased competition in our market and increasing concentration of advertising spending, including mobile spending, in a small number of very large competitors;
acts of competitors and other third parties that can adversely affect our business;

19

Table of Contents

our ability to differentiate our offerings and compete effectively in a market trending increasingly toward commodification, transparency, and disintermediation;
requests from buyers and sellers for discounts, fee concessions or revisions, rebates, refunds and greater levels of pricing transparency and specificity;
potential adverse effects of malicious activity such as fraudulent inventory and malware;
the effects of seasonal trends on our results of operations;
costs associated with defending intellectual property infringement and other claims;
our ability to attract and retain qualified employees and key personnel;
our ability to identify future acquisitions of or investments in complementary companies or technologies and our ability to consummate the acquisitions and integrate such companies or technologies; and
our ability to comply with, and the effect on our business of, evolving legal standards and regulations, particularly concerning data protection and consumer privacy and evolving labor standards.
We discuss many of these risks and additional factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those anticipated by our forward-looking statements under the headings "Risk Factors" and "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations," and elsewhere in this report and in other filings we have made and will make from time to time with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, including our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016. These forward-looking statements represent our estimates and assumptions only as of the date of this report. Unless required by federal securities laws, we assume no obligation to update any of these forward-looking statements, or to update the reasons actual results could differ materially from those anticipated, to reflect circumstances or events that occur after the statements are made. Without limiting the foregoing, we are currently not providing guidance, and any guidance we may provide will generally be given only in connection with quarterly and annual earnings announcements, without interim updates, and we may appear at industry conferences or make other public statements without disclosing material nonpublic information in our possession. Given these uncertainties, investors should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements.
Investors should read this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and the documents that we reference in this report and have filed or will file with the SEC completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.
The following discussion should be read in conjunction with our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and notes thereto appearing elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.
Overview
We pioneered advertising automation technology and are one of the world’s largest advertising exchanges. We help websites and applications thrive by giving them tools and expertise to sell ads easily and safely. In addition, the world’s leading agencies and brands rely on our technology to execute billions of advertising transactions each month.
We deliver value to buyers and sellers of digital advertising through our proprietary advertising automation solution, which provides critical functionality to both buyers and sellers. The advertising automation solution consists of applications for sellers, including providers of websites, mobile applications and other digital media properties, and their representatives, to sell their advertising inventory; applications for buyers, including advertisers, agencies, agency trading desks, demand side platforms, and ad networks, to buy advertising inventory; and a marketplace over which such transactions are executed. This solution incorporates proprietary machine-learning algorithms, sophisticated data processing, high-volume storage, detailed analytics capabilities, and a distributed infrastructure. Together, these features form the basis for our automated advertising solution that brings buyers and sellers together and facilitates intelligent decision-making and automated transaction execution for the advertising inventory managed on our platform.
One way that we measure buyer and seller activity on our platform is advertising spend, which we define as the buyer spending on advertising transacted on our platform. From advertising spend we retain fees associated with the services that we provide, and those fees make up the revenue we record. Take rate is a measurement we use to track the level of our fees as a percentage of the advertising spend for a given period. We discuss advertising spend and take rate more fully under the “Non-GAAP Financial Measures and Operational Performance Measures” section below.
Industry Trends and Trends in Our Business
Our solutions include real-time bidding and Orders. Real-time bidding, or RTB, allows sellers’ inventory to be sold in an auction to buyers that compete in a real-time auction to purchase sellers’ advertising inventory. Our Orders solution allows sellers to connect directly with buyers to execute direct sales of advertising inventory. The digital advertising market continues to

20

Table of Contents

experience growth. In December 2016, International Data Corporation, or IDC, estimated RTB was a $10.7 billion global market in 2016 that will increase to $20.9 billion by 2020, and Orders was a $6.7 billion global market in 2016 that will grow to $51.8 billion by 2020. The compound annual growth rate for these market opportunities is 43% on a combined basis. Another important trend in the digital advertising industry is the expansion of automated buying and selling of advertising through new channels, including mobile, which has market growth rates exceeding those of the desktop channel and is a critical area of operational focus for us. According to IDC estimates, mobile advertising (excluding search advertising) was a $30.7 billion global market in 2016 that is expected to increase to $100.5 billion by 2020, a compound annual growth rate of 35%.
The growth of automated buying and selling of advertising is also expanding into new geographic markets, and in some markets the rate of adoption of automated digital advertising is greater than in the United States. Our advertising spend in international markets, based upon seller location, represented approximately 35% and 40% of total advertising spend during the six months ended June 30, 2017 and 2016, respectively. We will continue our efforts to expand our international business. Refer to the "Non-GAAP Financial Measures and Operational Performance Measures" section for further details.
These macro trends present long-term growth opportunity; however, in the near term the industry-wide shift from desktop to mobile advertising is having an adverse impact on our business. In recent years, we have seen an industry-wide slowdown in the growth rate for traditional desktop advertising, and the growth rate for this portion of the market is expected to flatten in future years. According to IDC, desktop advertising (excluding search advertising) is expected to grow at a 1% compound annual growth rate over the 2016-2020 period. These trends are having a significant effect on our overall growth rate, because desktop advertising has historically been our core business and continues to represent a significant majority of our revenue. Our advertising spend for desktop decreased 30% during the six months ended June 30, 2017 compared to the six months ended June 30, 2016. In addition to this overall shift toward mobile, the impact of the slowdown in the growth rate for traditional desktop advertising was compounded for our business beginning in 2016 by the faster-than-expected industry migration to header bidding in North America. Header bidding increased competition for some inventory, and our decision to focus on other growth priorities and consequently not to invest earlier in our own header bidding solution, called FastLane, resulted in adverse revenue effects for us due to loss to competitors of some inventory that we would otherwise have been able to sell through our platform. However, header bidding makes available to us premium inventory that previously we were unable to access and FastLane (which we launched in early 2016) began producing positive results for us in the second half of 2016, which have continued through the second quarter of 2017. As a result, we believe that FastLane has the potential to improve our competitiveness in the traditional desktop market in 2017 and beyond. However, we must continue to address certain technical and operational challenges, as described under "Risk Factors" in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016, in order to realize FastLane's full potential.
In anticipation of the continued industry shift toward mobile advertising, we have significantly advanced our mobile capabilities through a combination of internal product development, strategic client wins, increased mobile activity driven from existing buyer and seller clients, and international expansion, resulting in strong growth in our mobile advertising spend over the two-year period ended December 31, 2016. However, our mobile advertising spend declined $5.0 million, or 3%, for the six months ended June 30, 2017, compared to the six months ended June 30, 2016. Our mobile business is composed of mobile web, which constitutes the majority of our mobile business and is impacted by many of the same factors impacting our desktop business, and mobile application, which is where we see the greatest potential for growth.
Because of these rapid developments in the industry, advertising spend from our traditional desktop business has declined and no longer can be relied upon to drive the growth of our business. Our strategic focus is on growth areas—including mobile, video, and Orders—that are expected to represent a majority of our advertising spend in 2017. However, despite our solid progress in mobile, our traditional desktop business accounted for approximately 61% and 69% of our advertising spend during the six months ended June 30, 2017 and 2016, respectively, and is expected to continue to represent a significant part of our business in the near term. Therefore, the weight of our desktop business and its decreasing advertising spend trend will continue to have a significant adverse effect on our growth until our advertising spend mix has shifted more fully to growth areas. Another factor impacting our business is that a large share of the growth in digital advertising spending worldwide is being captured by owned and operated sites, such as Facebook and Google.
Although we believe our pricing is competitive, we experience requests from buyers and sellers for discounts, fee concessions or revisions, rebates, refunds, and greater levels of pricing transparency and specificity. Buyers on our platform have come under growing pressure from their clients to reduce their fees and/or to provide fee transparency, sellers are also under revenue pressure, and these pressures may increasingly impact us. In light of increasing market trends toward transparency, commoditization of intermediary services, and disintermediation, we have implemented and expect to continue to implement strategic pricing reductions in an effort to be more competitive in attracting demand and capturing supply. While pricing reductions could make us more competitive, it is not clear whether they will result in increases in spending on our platform or whether any spending increases will compensate fully for the reduction in pricing. Another factor that we expect to contribute to a declining take rate is a continued shift in the mix of our advertising spend from RTB to Orders, which carry lower fees than RTB. An increase in Orders as a percentage of our advertising spend could yield higher revenue despite lower fees due to the higher CPMs typically associated with Orders transactions, but it is not certain that our Orders business will increase or that this effect

21

Table of Contents

will be realized. Although our advertising spend and revenue have increased in prior years as a result of an increase in overall advertising spending in the market, increased use of our solution by buyers and sellers, and increases in take rate and average CPM, our growth slowed significantly in 2016 due to market and competitive pressures, deceleration in traditional desktop display spending, header bidding dynamics as described above and decreases in our fees. This deceleration continued into the second quarter of 2017, with our revenue and advertising spend decreasing 36% and 22%, respectively, compared to the six months ended June 30, 2016 due primarily to the factors noted above and to a lesser extent from the impact of our cessation of our intent marketing solution. We expect these challenging business dynamics to have an increasingly adverse effect on our business for at least the rest of 2017.
In response to the challenges described above, we have taken steps to reduce costs and reallocate resources to growth areas. In the third quarter of 2016, we terminated our Static bidding offering, which accounted for approximately 3% of total advertising spend in 2016 and was continuing to contract due to shifts in market spending from Static bidding to RTB. In the fourth quarter of 2016, we restructured our workforce, reducing our headcount by approximately 125 persons. In the first quarter of 2017, we ceased offering our intent marketing solution, closed our Toronto office, and implemented a management restructuring involving the departure of seven senior leaders. These measures are intended to facilitate investment in market share growth, technology and R&D for growth areas including mobile, video, Orders, and header bidding.
In addition, we completed the acquisition of nToggle in July 2017 for aggregate cash consideration of $38.5 million. We expect the acquisition to have positive effects on revenue and Adjusted EBITDA in 2018, and to result in an increase in expenses and capital expenditures during the remainder of 2017.
Components of Our Results of Operations
We report our financial results as one operating segment. Our consolidated operating results, together with non-GAAP financial measures and the operational performance measures, are regularly reviewed by our chief operating decision maker, principally to make decisions about how we allocate our resources and to measure our consolidated operating performance.
Revenue
We generate revenue from buyers and sellers who use our solution for the purchase and sale of advertising inventory. Our solution enables buyers and sellers to purchase and sell advertising inventory by matching buyers and sellers and establishing rules and parameters for auctions of advertising inventory. Buyers use our solution to reach their intended audiences by buying advertising inventory that we make available from sellers through our platform. Sellers use our solution to monetize their inventory. We recognize revenue upon the fulfillment of our contractual obligations in connection with a completed transaction, subject to satisfying all other revenue recognition criteria.
Our revenue recognition policies are discussed in more detail below and in the notes to our condensed consolidated financial statements presented in "Item 1. Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements."
Expenses
We classify our expenses into the following five categories:
Cost of Revenue. Our cost of revenue consists primarily of data center costs, bandwidth costs, depreciation and maintenance expense of hardware supporting our revenue-producing platform, amortization of software costs for the development of our revenue-producing platform, amortization expense associated with acquired developed technologies, personnel costs, facilities-related costs, and for transactions we report on a gross basis, the amounts we pay sellers. Personnel costs included in cost of revenue include salaries, bonuses, stock-based compensation, and employee benefit costs, and are primarily attributable to personnel in our network operations group who support our platform. We capitalize costs associated with software that is developed or obtained for internal use and amortize the costs associated with our revenue-producing platform in cost of revenue over their estimated useful lives. We amortize acquired developed technologies over their estimated useful lives.
Sales and Marketing. Our sales and marketing expenses consist primarily of personnel costs, including stock-based compensation and the sales bonuses paid to our sales organization, as well as marketing expenses such as brand marketing, travel expenses, trade shows and marketing materials, professional services, and amortization expense associated with client relationships and backlog from our business acquisitions, and to a lesser extent, facilities-related costs and depreciation and amortization. Our sales organization focuses on increasing the adoption of our solution by existing and new buyers and sellers. We amortize acquired intangibles associated with client relationships and backlog from our business acquisitions over their estimated useful lives.
Technology and Development. Our technology and development expenses consist primarily of personnel costs, including stock-based compensation and bonuses, as well as professional services associated with the ongoing development and maintenance of our solution, and to a lesser extent, facilities-related costs and depreciation and amortization, including amortization expense associated with acquired intangible assets from our business acquisitions that are related to technology and

22

Table of Contents

development functions. These expenses include costs incurred in the development, implementation, and maintenance of internal use software, including platform and related infrastructure. Technology and development costs are expensed as incurred, except to the extent that such costs are associated with internal use software development that qualifies for capitalization, which are then recorded as internal use software development costs, net, on our condensed consolidated balance sheet. We amortize internal use software development costs that relate to our revenue-producing activities on our platform to cost of revenue and amortize other internal use software development costs to technology and development costs or general and administrative expenses, depending on the nature of the related project. We amortize acquired intangibles associated with technology and development functions from our business acquisitions over their estimated useful lives.
General and Administrative. Our general and administrative expenses consist primarily of personnel costs, including stock-based compensation and bonuses, associated with our executive, finance, legal, human resources, compliance, and other administrative personnel, as well as accounting and legal professional services fees, facilities-related costs and depreciation, and other corporate-related expenses. General and administrative expenses also include amortization of internal use software development costs and acquired intangible assets from our business acquisitions over their estimated useful lives that relate to general and administrative functions and changes in fair value associated with the liability-classified contingent consideration related to acquisitions.
Restructuring and other exit costs. Our restructuring and other exit costs are cash and non-cash charges consisting primarily of employee termination costs and facility closure costs.
Other (Income), Expense
Interest Income, net. Interest expense is mainly related to our credit facility. Interest income consists of interest earned on our cash equivalents and marketable securities and was insignificant for the six months ended June 30, 2017 and 2016.
Other Income. Other income consists primarily of rental income from commercial office space we hold under lease and have sublet to other tenants.
Foreign Currency Exchange (Gain) Loss, Net. Foreign currency exchange (gain) loss, net consists primarily of gains and losses on foreign currency transactions. We have foreign currency exposure related to our accounts receivable and accounts payable that are denominated in currencies other than the U.S. Dollar, principally the British Pound and Euro.
Provision (Benefit) for Income Taxes
Provision (benefit) for income taxes consists primarily of federal, state, and foreign income taxes. Due to uncertainty as to the realization of benefits from the predominant portion of our domestic and international net deferred tax assets, including net operating loss carryforwards and research and development tax credits, we have a full valuation allowance reserved against such net deferred tax assets. We intend to continue to maintain a full valuation allowance on our deferred tax assets until there is sufficient evidence to support the reversal of all or some portion of these allowances. Release of the valuation allowance would result in the recognition of certain net deferred tax assets and a decrease to income tax expense or recognition of a benefit for the period the release is recorded. However, the exact timing and amount of the valuation allowance release are subject to change on the basis of the level of profitability that we are able to achieve.

23

Table of Contents

Results of Operations
The following table sets forth our condensed consolidated results of operations:
 
 
Three Months Ended
 
Six Months Ended
 
 
June 30, 2017
 
June 30, 2016
 
June 30, 2017
 
June 30, 2016
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(in thousands)
Revenue
 
$
42,922

 
$
70,511

 
$
88,937

 
$
139,743

Expenses (1)(2):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of revenue
 
13,698

 
17,540

 
28,386

 
34,323

Sales and marketing
 
12,529

 
21,966

 
27,157

 
43,244

Technology and development
 
12,044

 
13,294

 
24,797

 
25,737

General and administrative
 
14,355

 
16,390

 
29,435

 
36,995

Restructuring and other exit costs
 
1,621

 

 
5,959

 

Total expenses
 
54,247

 
69,190

 
115,734

 
140,299

Income (loss) from operations
 
(11,325
)
 
1,321

 
(26,797
)
 
(556
)
Other (income) expense
 
84

 
(906
)
 
77

 
(739
)
Income (loss) before income taxes
 
(11,409
)
 
2,227

 
(26,874
)
 
183

Provision for income taxes
 
146

 
4,904

 
521

 
576

Net loss
 
$
(11,555
)
 
$
(2,677
)
 
$
(27,395
)
 
$
(393
)
(1)  Stock-based compensation expense included in our expenses was as follows:
 
 
Three Months Ended
 
Six Months Ended
 
 
June 30, 2017
 
June 30, 2016
 
June 30, 2017
 
June 30, 2016
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(in thousands)
Cost of revenue
 
$
96

 
$
108

 
$
180

 
$
170

Sales and marketing
 
974

 
2,543

 
2,409

 
4,657

Technology and development
 
981

 
1,800

 
2,056

 
3,174

General and administrative
 
2,628

 
2,675

 
5,337

 
7,516

Restructuring and other exit costs
 
624

 

 
1,560

 

Total stock-based compensation expense
 
$
5,303

 
$
7,126

 
$
11,542

 
$
15,517

(2)  Depreciation and amortization expense included in our expenses was as follows:
 
 
Three Months Ended
 
Six Months Ended
 
 
June 30, 2017
 
June 30, 2016
 
June 30, 2017
 
June 30, 2016
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(in thousands)
Cost of revenue
 
$
8,045

 
$
6,720

 
$
16,424

 
$
12,668

Sales and marketing
 
286

 
1,970

 
753

 
3,562

Technology and development
 
331

 
606

 
997

 
1,204

General and administrative
 
193

 
486

 
802

 
974

Total depreciation and amortization expense
 
$
8,855

 
$
9,782

 
$
18,976

 
$
18,408


24

Table of Contents

The following table sets forth our condensed consolidated results of operations for the specified periods as a percentage of our revenue for those periods presented:
 
 
Three Months Ended *
 
Six Months Ended *
 
 
June 30, 2017
 
June 30, 2016
 
June 30, 2017
 
June 30, 2016
Revenue
 
100
 %
 
100
 %
 
100
 %
 
100
 %
Cost of revenue
 
32

 
25

 
32

 
25

Sales and marketing
 
29

 
31

 
31

 
31

Technology and development
 
28

 
19

 
28

 
18

General and administrative
 
33

 
23

 
33

 
26

Restructuring and other exit costs
 
4

 

 
7

 

Total expenses
 
126

 
98

 
130

 
100

Income (loss) from operations
 
(26
)
 
2

 
(30
)
 

Other (income) expense
 

 
(1
)
 

 
(1
)
Income (loss) before income taxes
 
(27
)
 
3

 
(30
)
 

Provision for income taxes
 

 
7

 
1

 

Net loss
 
(27
)%
 
(4
)%
 
(31
)%
 
 %
* Certain figures may not sum due to rounding.
Comparison of the Three and Six Months Ended June 30, 2017 and 2016
Revenue
 
 
Three Months Ended
 
Six Months Ended
 
 
June 30, 2017
 
June 30, 2016
 
June 30, 2017
 
June 30, 2016
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(in thousands)
Revenue
 
$
42,922

 
$
70,511

 
$
88,937

 
$
139,743

Revenue decreased $27.6 million, or 39%, for the three months ended June 30, 2017 compared to the three months ended June 30, 2016. The decrease is primarily due to a decrease in advertising spend on our platform due to market and competitive pressures, deceleration in traditional desktop display spending, and header bidding dynamics as described above. In addition, we voluntarily implemented certain strategic reductions in our pricing in response to our perception of market conditions and in an effort to increase our competitiveness. Year-over-year revenue was also adversely affected by shifts in our business mix in favor of buyers and sellers and inventory types with lower fee rates. Finally, the decline of our intent marketing solution and the ultimate decision to cease offering our intent marketing solution contributed to the total revenue decrease when compared to prior year.
Revenue decreased $50.8 million, or 36%, for the six months ended June 30, 2017 compared to the six months ended June 30, 2016 primarily for the same reasons described above.
Revenue may be impacted by shifts in the mix of advertising spend by transaction type and channel, changes in the fees we charge buyers and sellers for our services (which drive take rate), and other factors such as changes in the market, our execution of the business, and competition. Additionally, our business is somewhat seasonal in nature, typically generating higher ad spend during the fourth quarter of the year.  
Industry dynamics are challenging due to market and competitive pressures and make it difficult to predict the near-term effect of our growth initiatives. Consequently, while we anticipate long-term benefits from these initiatives, in 2017 we expect a decrease in revenue compared to 2016 resulting from the cessation of our intent marketing solution, a decreasing overall take rate, increased competition for inventory partially due to continued industry-wide growth in header bidding, and increased competition for demand, including from large providers of owned and operated inventory. Most of the strategic pricing reductions we implemented in the first half of the year did not take effect until part way through the second quarter, so they will have a more significant effect on the second half of the year unless counterbalanced by positive effects from these reductions or other growth initiatives. Further, we expect to implement additional pricing reductions or lower-fee alternative pricing structures during the second half of the year in response to market pressures and in an effort to be more competitive in attracting demand and capturing inventory. Lower pricing may result in higher advertising spend growth, but it is not clear that resulting advertising spend increases would offset the revenue decreases resulting from pricing reductions. We also expect an ongoing increase in Orders as a percentage of the transactions on our platform to contribute to lower take rates because Orders carry lower fees than RTB transactions.

25

Table of Contents

Cost of Revenue
 
 
Three Months Ended
 
Six Months Ended
 
 
June 30, 2017
 
June 30, 2016
 
June 30, 2017
 
June 30, 2016
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(in thousands, except percentages)
Cost of revenue
 
$
13,698

 
$
17,540

 
$
28,386

 
$
34,323

Percent of revenue
 
32
%
 
25
%
 
32
%
 
25
%
Cost of revenue decreased by $3.8 million, or 22%, for the three months ended June 30, 2017 compared to the three months ended June 30, 2016, primarily due to a decrease of $5.2 million in the amounts we paid sellers. The decrease in amounts paid to sellers reflects the impact of the discontinuation of our intent marketing solution during the quarter ended March 31, 2017. This decrease was offset by increases of $1.3 million in depreciation and amortization expense as a result of increases in depreciation of computer equipment and network hardware, and amortization of capitalized internal use software, as we continued to enhance the functionality of our existing products and build new solutions to expand our offerings.
Cost of revenue decreased by $5.9 million, or 17%, for the six months ended June 30, 2017 compared to the six months ended June 30, 2016. The decrease is primarily driven by a decrease of $10.1 million in amounts paid to sellers due to the same reasons described above, offset by increases of $3.8 million in depreciation and amortization as a result of our continued efforts in enhancing functionality of our existing product and building new solutions to expand our offerings.
We expect quarterly cost of revenue to be higher in absolute dollars in the remaining half of 2017 compared to the first half of 2017. We expect to have increased spending in 2017 on data centers, personnel to build and maintain our technology and systems, as well as investments in developed technology to support our strategic growth initiatives, which will eventually outweigh the elimination of amounts paid to sellers. In addition, we expect to incur incremental expenses related to the absorption of nToggle operations. Cost of revenue may fluctuate from quarter to quarter and period to period, on an absolute dollar basis and as a percentage of revenue, depending on revenue levels and the volume of transactions we process supporting those revenues, the timing and amounts of investments, and the amounts we pay sellers related to transactions we may report on a gross basis.
Sales and Marketing
 
 
Three Months Ended
 
Six Months Ended
 
 
June 30, 2017
 
June 30, 2016
 
June 30, 2017
 
June 30, 2016
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(in thousands, except percentages)
Sales and marketing
 
$
12,529

 
$
21,966

 
$
27,157

 
$
43,244

Percent of revenue
 
29
%
 
31
%
 
31
%
 
31
%
Sales and marketing expense decreased $9.4 million or 43% for the three months ended June 30, 2017 compared to the three months ended June 30, 2016, primarily due to a decrease of $5.9 million in sales and marketing personnel costs as a result of our operating cost control initiatives. Sales and marketing depreciation and amortization costs decreased by $1.7 million primarily due to lower amortization of acquired client relationships.
Sales and marketing expense decreased by $16.1 million, or 37%, for the six months ended June 30, 2017 compared to the six months ended June 30, 2016, primarily for the same reasons described above.
We expect quarterly sales and marketing expenses to be higher in absolute dollars in the remaining half of 2017 compared to the first half of 2017, partially due to the absorption of nToggle operations. Sales and marketing expense may fluctuate quarter to quarter and period to period, on an absolute dollar basis and as a percentage of revenue, based on revenue levels, the timing of our investments and seasonality in our industry and business.

26

Table of Contents

Technology and Development
 
 
Three Months Ended
 
Six Months Ended
 
 
June 30, 2017
 
June 30, 2016
 
June 30, 2017
 
June 30, 2016
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(in thousands, except percentages)
Technology and development
 
$
12,044

 
$
13,294

 
$
24,797

 
$
25,737

Percent of revenue
 
28
%
 
19
%
 
28
%
 
18
%
Technology and development expense decreased by $1.3 million, or 9%, for the three months ended June 30, 2017 compared to the three months ended June 30, 2016, primarily due to a decrease in headcount and related personnel costs of $1.0 million as a result of our operating cost control initiatives.
Technology and development expense decreased by $0.9 million, or 4%, for the six months ended June 30, 2017 compared to the six months ended June 30, 2016, primarily due to a decrease in headcount and related personnel costs of $1.6 million due to the same reasons as described above, partially offset by an increase in software licenses due to annual increases in our existing licenses to maintain and support our technology and development efforts.
We expect technology and development expense to be higher in absolute dollars in future periods as we continue to invest in our engineering and technology teams to support our technology and development efforts, including the absorption of nToggle operations. The timing and amount of our capitalized development and enhancement projects may affect the amount of development costs expensed in any given period. As a percentage of revenue, technology and development expense may fluctuate from quarter to quarter and period to period based on revenue levels, the timing and amounts of these investments, the timing and the rate of the amortization of capitalized projects and the timing and amounts of future capitalized internal use software development costs.
    General and Administrative
 
 
 
Three Months Ended
 
Six Months Ended
 
 
June 30, 2017
 
June 30, 2016
 
June 30, 2017
 
June 30, 2016
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(in thousands, except percentages)
General and administrative
 
$
14,355

 
$
16,390

 
$
29,435

 
$
36,995

Percent of revenue
 
33
%
 
23
%
 
33
%
 
26
%
General and administrative expense decreased by $2.0 million, or 12%, for the three months ended June 30, 2017 compared to the three months ended June 30, 2016, primarily due to a decrease in headcount and related personnel costs of $1.3 million as a result of our cost control initiatives.
General and administrative expense decreased by $7.6 million, or 20%, for the six months ended June 30, 2017 compared to the six months ended June 30, 2016, primarily due to a decrease in headcount and related personnel costs for the same reasons as described above and a decrease in professional services costs of $0.8 million primarily due to decreased legal and consulting costs.
We expect quarterly general and administrative expense to be higher in absolute dollars in the remaining half of 2017 compared to the first half of 2017. General and administrative expenses may fluctuate from quarter to quarter and period to period based on the timing and amounts of our investments and related expenditures in our general and administrative functions as they vary in scope and scale over periods which may not be directly proportional to changes in revenue.
Restructuring and other exit costs
 
 
Three Months Ended
 
Six Months Ended
 
 
June 30, 2017
 
June 30, 2016
 
June 30, 2017
 
June 30, 2016
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(in thousands, except percentages)
Restructuring and other exit costs
 
$
1,621

 
$

 
$
5,959

 
$

Percent of revenue
 
4
%
 
%
 
7
%
 
%
Restructuring and other exit costs increased by $1.6 million for the three months ended June 30, 2017 compared to the three months ended June 30, 2016, as a result of the management restructuring in which seven senior leaders left the Company and the costs associated with the shut-down of our intent marketing services. Restructuring and other exit costs increased by $6.0 million for the six months ended June 30, 2017 compared to the six months ended June 30, 2016 for the same reasons as described above.

27

Table of Contents

The annualized cash basis employee-related costs for the departed intent marketing, senior leadership and related employees is approximately $9.0 million, and additional savings from non-headcount and non-media intent marketing costs are estimated at an annualized $4.0 million.
    
Other (Income) Expense, Net
 
 
Three Months Ended
 
Six Months Ended
 
 
June 30, 2017
 
June 30, 2016
 
June 30, 2017
 
June 30, 2016
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(in thousands)
Interest income, net
 
$
(228
)
 
$
(131
)
 
$
(395
)
 
$
(225
)
Other income
 
(167
)
 
(197
)
 
(379
)
 
(197
)
Foreign exchange (gain) loss, net
 
479

 
(578
)
 
851

 
(317
)
Total other (income) expense, net
 
$
84

 
$
(906
)
 
$
77

 
$
(739
)
Other income primarily consists of revenue generated by our sub-leasing activity.
Foreign exchange loss, net is impacted by movements in exchange rates, primarily the British Pound and Euro relative to the U.S. Dollar, and the amount of foreign-currency denominated receivables and payables, which are impacted by our billings to buyers and payments to sellers. The foreign currency loss, net during the three and six months ended June 30, 2017 were primarily attributable to the weakening of the U.S. Dollar in relation to the British Pound and Euro for foreign currency denominated transactions. The foreign currency gain, net during the three and six months ended June 30, 2016 was primarily attributable to the strengthening of the U.S. Dollar in relation to the British Pound and Euro for foreign currency denominated transactions.
Provision (Benefit) for Income Taxes     
We recorded an income tax provision of $0.1 million and $0.5 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2017 and an income tax provision of $4.9 million and $0.6 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2016. The tax expense for the three months ended June 30, 2017 is the result of domestic and certain international valuation allowances and the geographical mix of income and losses.
Non-GAAP Financial Measures and Operational Performance Measures
In addition to our GAAP results, we review certain non-GAAP financial measures to help us evaluate our business, measure our performance, identify trends affecting our business, establish budgets, measure the effectiveness of investments in our technology and development and sales and marketing, and assess our operational efficiencies. These non-GAAP measures include advertising spend, non-GAAP net revenue, and Adjusted EBITDA, which are discussed immediately following the table below. Revenue and other GAAP measures are discussed under the headings "Components of Our Results of Operations" and "Results of Operations".
 
 
Three Months Ended
 
Six Months Ended
 
 
June 30, 2017
 
June 30, 2016
 
June 30, 2017
 
June 30, 2016
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(in thousands)
Financial Measures and non-GAAP Financial Measures:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue
 
$
42,922

 
$
70,511

 
$
88,937

 
$
139,743

Advertising spend
 
$
204,391

 
$
257,413

 
$
395,931

 
$
505,910

Non-GAAP net revenue
 
$
42,922

 
$
65,108

 
$
88,304

 
$
128,668

Net loss
 
$
(11,555
)
 
$
(2,677
)
 
$
(27,395
)
 
$
(393
)
Adjusted EBITDA
 
$
3,000

 
$
18,439

 
$
4,100

 
$
33,897

Operational Measure:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Take Rate
 
21.0
%
 
25.3
%
 
22.3
%
 
25.4
%
Advertising Spend
We define advertising spend as the buyer spending on advertising transacted on our platform. Advertising spend does not represent revenue reported on a GAAP basis. Tracking our advertising spend facilitates comparison of our results to the results of companies in our industry that report GAAP revenue on a gross basis. We also use advertising spend for internal management purposes to assess market share of total advertising spending.

28

Table of Contents

Our advertising spend may be influenced by demand for our services, the volume and characteristics of paid impressions, average CPM, the nature and amount of fees we charge, and other factors such as changes in the market, our execution of the business, and competition.
Advertising spend may fluctuate due to seasonality and increases or decreases in average CPM and paid impressions. In addition, we generally experience higher advertising spend during the fourth quarter of a given year resulting from higher advertiser budgets and more bidding activity on our platform, which may drive higher volumes of paid impressions or average CPM. Advertising spend during the six months ended June 30, 2017 has decreased $110 million compared to the six months ended June 30, 2016, primarily due to market and competitive pressures, deceleration in traditional desktop display spending, header bidding dynamics and decreases in our fees.
The following table presents the reconciliation of revenue to advertising spend:
 
 
Three Months Ended
 
Six Months Ended
 
 
June 30, 2017
 
June 30, 2016
 
June 30, 2017
 
June 30, 2016
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(in thousands)
Revenue
 
$
42,922

 
$
70,511

 
$
88,937

 
$
139,743

Plus amounts paid to sellers(1)
 
161,469

 
186,902

 
306,994

 
366,167

Advertising spend
 
$
204,391

 
$
257,413

 
$
395,931

 
$
505,910

(1)  Amounts paid to sellers for the portion of our revenue reported on a net basis for GAAP purposes.
Our solution enables buyers and sellers to transact through desktop and mobile channels. The following table presents revenue and advertising spend by channel in dollar terms and as a percentage of total revenue or advertising spend for the three and six months ended June 30, 2017 and 2016.
 
 
Revenue
 
Advertising Spend
 
 
Three Months Ended
 
 
June 30, 2017
 
June 30, 2016
 
June 30, 2017
 
June 30, 2016
 
 
 
 
 
(in thousands, except percentages)
Channel:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Desktop
 
$
23,746

 
55
%
 
$
46,107

 
65
%
 
$
118,517

 
58
%
 
$
172,453

 
67
%
Mobile
 
19,176

 
45

 
24,404

 
35

 
85,874

 
42

 
84,960

 
33

Total
 
$
42,922

 
100
%
 
$
70,511

 
100
%
 
$
204,391

 
100
%
 
$
257,413

 
100
%
 
 
Revenue
 
Advertising Spend
 
 
Six Months Ended
 
 
June 30, 2017
 
June 30, 2016
 
June 30, 2017